Force-directed algorithms such as the Kamada-Kawai algorithm have shown promising results for solving the boundary detection problem in a mobile ad hoc network. However, the classical Kamada-Kawai algorithm does not scale well when it is used in networks with large numbers of nodes. It also produces poor results in non-convex networks. To address these problems, this paper proposes an improved version of the Kamada-Kawai algorithm. The proposed extension includes novel heuristics and algorithms that achieve a faster energy level reduction. Our experimental results show that the improved algorithm can significantly shorten the processing time and detect boundary nodes with an acceptable level of accuracy.
The author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication can be downloaded from Accelerating Kamada-Kawai for boundary detection in Mobile Ad-Hoc network. Se-Hang Cheong, and Yain-Whar Si. "Accelerating the Kamada-Kawai algorithm for boundary detection in a mobile ad hoc network." ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN) 13.1 (2016): 3.